IFRS 13 — Fair Value Measurement
IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement applies to IFRSs that require or permit fair value measurements or disclosures and provides a single IFRS framework for measuring fair value and requires disclosures about fair value measurement. The Standard defines fair value on the basis of an 'exit price' notion and uses a 'fair value hierarchy', which results in a market-based, rather than entity-specific, measurement.
IFRS 13 was originally issued in May 2011 and applies to annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013.
History of IFRS 13
|September 2005||Project on fair value measurement added to the IASB's agenda (history of the project)|
|30 November 2006||Discussion Paper Fair Value Measurements published|
|28 May 2009||Exposure Draft Fair Value Measurement published|
|29 June 2010||Exposure Draft Measurement Uncertainty Analysis Disclosure for Fair Value Measurements published|
|19 August 2010||Staff draft of a IFRS on fair value measurement released|
|12 May 2011||IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement published|
|1 January 2013||Effective date of IFRS 13|
Amendments under consideration by the IASB
Publications and resources
- IFRS in Focus Newsletter IASB issues new standard on fair value measurement and disclosure summarising the requirements of IFRS 13 (PDF 78k, May 2011)
- Deloitte IFRS Podcast (May 2011, 10 minutes, 7mb)
Summary of IFRS 13
IFRS 13: [IFRS 13:1]
- defines fair value
- sets out in a single IFRS a framework for measuring fair value
- requires disclosures about fair value measurements.
IFRS 13 applies when another IFRS requires or permits fair value measurements or disclosures about fair value measurements (and measurements, such as fair value less costs to sell, based on fair value or disclosures about those measurements), except for: [IFRS 13:5-7]
- share-based payment transactions within the scope of IFRS 2 Share-based Payment
- leasing transactions within the scope of IAS 17 Leases
- measurements that have some similarities to fair value but that are not fair value, such as net realisable value in IAS 2 Inventories or value in use in IAS 36 Impairment of Assets.
Additional exemptions apply to the disclosures required by IFRS 13.
[IFRS 13:Appendix A]
|Fair value||The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date|
|Active market||A market in which transactions for the asset or liability take place with sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis|
|Exit price||The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability|
|Highest and best use||The use of a non-financial asset by market participants that would maximise the value of the asset or the group of assets and liabilities (e.g. a business) within which the asset would be used|
|Most advantageous market||The market that maximises the amount that would be received to sell the asset or minimises the amount that would be paid to transfer the liability, after taking into account transaction costs and transport costs|
|Principal market||The market with the greatest volume and level of activity for the asset or liability|
Fair value hierarchy
IFRS 13 seeks to increase consistency and comparability in fair value measurements and related disclosures through a 'fair value hierarchy'. The hierarchy categorises the inputs used in valuation techniques into three levels. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to (unadjusted) quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs. [IFRS 13:72]
If the inputs used to measure fair value are categorised into different levels of the fair value hierarchy, the fair value measurement is categorised in its entirety in the level of the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement (based on the application of judgement). [IFRS 13:73]
Level 1 inputs
Level 1 inputs are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date. [IFRS 13:76]
A quoted market price in an active market provides the most reliable evidence of fair value and is used without adjustment to measure fair value whenever available, with limited exceptions. [IFRS 13:77]
If an entity holds a position in a single asset or liability and the asset or liability is traded in an active market, the fair value of the asset or liability is measured within Level 1 as the product of the quoted price for the individual asset or liability and the quantity held by the entity, even if the market's normal daily trading volume is not sufficient to absorb the quantity held and placing orders to sell the position in a single transaction might affect the quoted price. [IFRS 13:80]
Level 2 inputs
Level 2 inputs are inputs other than quoted market prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. [IFRS 13:81]
Level 2 inputs include:
- quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets
- quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active
- inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, for example
- interest rates and yield curves observable at commonly quoted intervals
- implied volatilities
- credit spreads
- inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means ('market-corroborated inputs').
Level 3 inputs
Level 3 inputs inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability. [IFRS 13:86]
Unobservable inputs are used to measure fair value to the extent that relevant observable inputs are not available, thereby allowing for situations in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date. An entity develops unobservable inputs using the best information available in the circumstances, which might include the entity's own data, taking into account all information about market participant assumptions that is reasonably available. [IFRS 13:87-89]
Measurement of fair value
Overview of fair value measurement approach
The objective of a fair value measurement is to estimate the price at which an orderly transaction to sell the asset or to transfer the liability would take place between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions. A fair value measurement requires an entity to determine all of the following: [IFRS 13:B2]
- the particular asset or liability that is the subject of the measurement (consistently with its unit of account)
- for a non-financial asset, the valuation premise that is appropriate for the measurement (consistently with its highest and best use)
- the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability
- the valuation technique(s) appropriate for the measurement, considering the availability of data with which to develop inputs that represent the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy within which the inputs are categorised.
Guidance on measurement
IFRS 13 provides the guidance on the measurement of fair value, including the following:
- An entity takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability being measured that a market participant would take into account when pricing the asset or liability at measurement date (e.g. the condition and location of the asset and any restrictions on the sale and use of the asset) [IFRS 13:11]
- Fair value measurement assumes an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions [IFRS 13:15]
- Fair value measurement assumes a transaction taking place in the principal market for the asset or liability, or in the absence of a principal market, the most advantageous market for the asset or liability [IFRS 13:24]
- A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account its highest and best use [IFRS 13:27]
- A fair value measurement of a financial or non-financial liability or an entity's own equity instruments assumes it is transferred to a market participant at the measurement date, without settlement, extinguishment, or cancellation at the measurement date [IFRS 13:34]
- The fair value of a liability reflects non-performance risk (the risk the entity will not fulfil an obligation), including an entity's own credit risk and assuming the same non-performance risk before and after the transfer of the liability [IFRS 13:42]
- An optional exception applies for certain financial assets and financial liabilities with offsetting positions in market risks or counterparty credit risk, provided conditions are met (additional disclosure is required). [IFRS 13:48, IFRS 13:96]
An entity uses valuation techniques appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs. [IFRS 13:61, IFRS 13:67]
The objective of using a valuation technique is to estimate the price at which an orderly transaction to sell the asset or to transfer the liability would take place between market participants and the measurement date under current market conditions. Three widely used valuation techniques are: [IFRS 13:62]
- market approach – uses prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable (similar) assets, liabilities, or a group of assets and liabilities (e.g. a business)
- cost approach – reflects the amount that would be required currently to replace the service capacity of an asset (current replacement cost)
- income approach – converts future amounts (cash flows or income and expenses) to a single current (discounted) amount, reflecting current market expectations about those future amounts.
In some cases, a single valuation technique will be appropriate, whereas in others multiple valuation techniques will be appropriate. [IFRS 13:63]
IFRS 13 requires an entity to disclose information that helps users of its financial statements assess both of the following: [IFRS 13:91]
- for assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring or non-recurring basis in the statement of financial position after initial recognition, the valuation techniques and inputs used to develop those measurements
- for fair value measurements using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3), the effect of the measurements on profit or loss or other comprehensive income for the period.
The disclosure requirements are not required for: [IFRS 13:7]
- plan assets measured at fair value in accordance with IAS 19 Employee Benefits
- retirement benefit plan investments measured at fair value in accordance with IAS 26 Accounting and Reporting by Retirement Benefit Plans
- assets for which recoverable amount is fair value less costs of disposal in accordance with IAS 36 Impairment of Assets.
Identification of classes
Where disclosures are required to be provided for each class of asset or liability, an entity determines appropriate classes on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability, and the level of the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement is categorised. [IFRS 13:94]
Determining appropriate classes of assets and liabilities for which disclosures about fair value measurements should be provided requires judgement. A class of assets and liabilities will often require greater disaggregation than the line items presented in the statement of financial position. The number of classes may need to be greater for fair value measurements categorised within Level 3.
Some disclosures are differentiated on whether the measurements are:
- Recurring fair value measurements – fair value measurements required or permitted by other IFRSs to be recognised in the statement of financial position at the end of each reporting period
- Non-recurring fair value measurements are fair value measurements that are required or permitted by other IFRSs to be measured in the statement of financial position in particular circumstances.
Specific disclosures required
To meet the disclosure objective, the following minimum disclosures are required for each class of assets and liabilities measured at fair value (including measurements based on fair value within the scope of this IFRS) in the statement of financial position after initial recognition (note these are requirements have been summarised and additional disclosure is required where necessary): [IFRS 13:93]
- the fair value measurement at the end of the reporting period*
- for non-recurring fair value measurements, the reasons for the measurement*
- the level of the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurements are categorised in their entirety (Level 1, 2 or 3)*
- for assets and liabilities held at the reporting date that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis, the amounts of any transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, the reasons for those transfers and the entity's policy for determining when transfers between levels are deemed to have occurred, separately disclosing and discussing transfers into and out of each level
- for fair value measurements categorised within Level 2 and Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, a description of the valuation technique(s) and the inputs used in the fair value measurement, any change in the valuation techniques and the reason(s) for making such change (with some exceptions)*
- for fair value measurements categorised within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, quantitative information about the significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement (with some exceptions)
- for recurring fair value measurements categorised within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, a reconciliation from the opening balances to the closing balances, disclosing separately changes during the period attributable to the following:
- total gains or losses for the period recognised in profit or loss, and the line item(s) in profit or loss in which those gains or losses are recognised – separately disclosing the amount included in profit or loss that is attributable to the change in unrealised gains or losses relating to those assets and liabilities held at the end of the reporting period, and the line item(s) in profit or loss in which those unrealised gains or losses are recognised
- total gains or losses for the period recognised in other comprehensive income, and the line item(s) in other comprehensive income in which those gains or losses are recognised
- purchases, sales, issues and settlements (each of those types of changes disclosed separately)
- the amounts of any transfers into or out of Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, the reasons for those transfers and the entity's policy for determining when transfers between levels are deemed to have occurred. Transfers into Level 3 shall be disclosed and discussed separately from transfers out of Level 3
- for fair value measurements categorised within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, a description of the valuation processes used by the entity
- for recurring fair value measurements categorised within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy:
- a narrative description of the sensitivity of the fair value measurement to changes in unobservable inputs if a change in those inputs to a different amount might result in a significantly higher or lower fair value measurement. If there are interrelationships between those inputs and other unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement, the entity also provides a description of those interrelationships and of how they might magnify or mitigate the effect of changes in the unobservable inputs on the fair value measurement
- for financial assets and financial liabilities, if changing one or more of the unobservable inputs to reflect reasonably possible alternative assumptions would change fair value significantly, an entity shall state that fact and disclose the effect of those changes. The entity shall disclose how the effect of a change to reflect a reasonably possible alternative assumption was calculated
- if the highest and best use of a non-financial asset differs from its current use, an entity shall disclose that fact and why the non-financial asset is being used in a manner that differs from its highest and best use*.
'*' in the list above indicates that the disclosure is also applicable to a class of assets or liabilities which is not measured at fair value in the statement of financial position but for which the fair value is disclosed. [IFRS 13:97]
Quantitative disclosures are required to be presented in a tabular format unless another format is more appropriate. [IFRS 13:99]
Effective date and transition
[IFRS 13:Appendix C]
IFRS 13 is applicable to annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013. An entity may apply IFRS 13 to an earlier accounting period, but if doing so it must disclose the fact.
Application is required prospectively as of the beginning of the annual reporting period in which the IFRS is initially applied. Comparative information need not be disclosed for periods before initial application.